TE MANA O TE HIKU O TE IKA
In the matter of the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975;
In the matter of the application by Te Aupouri, Ngati Kuri, Ngai Takoto, concerning the claims to lands, harbours, waterways and fishery rights within their territories.
Submissions by Rev. Maori Marsden. (Member of above tribes, on behalf of those tribes.)
"Toi te Kupu, Toi te Mana, Toi te Whenua".
"When the work is established, the mana is established and the land is secured",
This proverb encapsulated the principles by which the Treaty of Waitangi ought to have been guided, and the relationships and transaction between the tangata Whenua and Crown ought to have been conducted, if authentic Bi-cultural Development and Partnership was to be established.
In Pakeha culture, there is a disconnection between the secular and the spiritual. This disconnection is linked with the capitalistic mode of production which expropriates and commodifies the land, its resources and people. Such disconnection produces double standards and situational ethics based on self and in-group interests however / whenever / and wherever it suits the holder. It has no firm foundation to which it can be secured since it is based upon materialistic considerations and not on the spiritual. In other words it is based upon the lower transitory rather than on the higher, which is eternal.
No such disconnection between secular and sacred could be contemplated by the Maori. He was descended from the gods through the descent lines of culture heroes. All things originated in Io-taketake, the foundation of all things and upon which all things are established. All is one. The Maori is therefore one with all things. He is an integral part of the natural order. He therefore holds a special relationship to Mother Earth; the mother who nurtures all mankind. Since Ranginui is the Sky Father, the Father of the lesser gods and especially Tane the progenitor of mankind, what therefore is established on earth by the 'Kupu Mana' is established in the heavens. The link between the secular and spiritual when recognised and adhered to, links the Oath, or Work of Power of eternal foundations. Hence, Toi te Kupu
- Reverend Maori Marsden
By the term Aupouri-nui-tonu, I mean, and include all those hapu which originally derived from the Iwi of Ngati Kaha, descended from the Matawaka, Kurahaupo under the Captaincy of Po-Hurihanga and who are now recognised as consisting of three major hapu, Ngati Kuri, Ngati Takoto and Aupouri. These are the three major hapu who are still resident in (Ahi Kaa) those territories and within the boundaries established from ancient times under the Iwi of Ngati Kaha.
Those territories are encompassed broadly within the boundaries specified hereunder:
From Te Wharau (at North Cape) west to Te Reinga; then south to Puketutu (a hill, a mile north of the present Kaitaia Golf Course) on Te-Oneroa-A-Tohe (Ninety Mile Beach) then east through Tangonge (below Pukepoto) to Kaitaia along the Rangitane stream, then north along its western banks to Ngakura-iti, and from thence to western head of the Rangaunu Harbour, and continuing along the east coast to Houhora, Parengarenga and thence to Te Wharau, the original point of departure.
In more detailed form, following the above boundaries, the various points around the coast and inland, where papakainga were established, are as follows:
Te Wharau, Huakura, Ngakengo, Whareana, Waikuku, Murimotu, Waihei, Wharemanu, Takapaukura, Oakura, Te Huka, Te Pakohu, Maunga Piko, Kapowairua, Rangitane, Waitahora, Whangakea, Takehira, Taputuputu, Te Reinga, Hireki, Te Werahi, Rahia, Kahokawa, Matapia, Ngakeketo, Waikanae, Pukekura, Maunganui, Te Arai, Hukatere, Ngapae, Honuhonu, Matawi, Puketutu.
Inland: Ngarereata, Te Paki, Waitiki, Kohuronaki, Te Marua, Waiarohia, Waingatepua, Ngaharoa, Peterehama, Waihuahua, Taumataroa, Te Arawhata, Tahuna, Te Kahakaha, Te Poroporo, Panaki, Te Hapua, Te Waharua, Ngamangu, Te Mingi, Tikorangi, Ngatekawa, Karatia.
Parengarenga harbour and environs:
Motukorari, Motumapau, Te Kokota, Te Wahapu, Te Pua, Motu Whangai-Kuri, Te Mangaro, Koiata, Paua, Tiotar, Te Kahika, Ngatuwhete, Mitimiti, Horoi turi, Tangoake, Toko-o-te-Arawa.
Te Kao, Wairahi, Wharekapu, Rarawa, Ngataki, Waihopo, Houhora, Pukenui, Motutangi, Kaimaumau, Waiharara, Paparore, Waipapakauri, Ngatu, Ngapae, Waimanoni, Awanui, Rimangamange, Te Make, Tangonge, Kaiwaka, Te Kumi, Maimaru, Oinu, Waihangehange.
Nga Tohu o nga uri o Pohurihanga: mo Parengarenga
• Te Paepae a Tamakehu.
• Te Poroporo
Pahaki – He panakitanga no nga uri ki te ra.
• Te Toi, he pa kei waho o te wahapu no Ngehenghe.
• Kokotu, he kete kokotu na Naumai.
• Te tiki a Ngehengehe
• Te tiki pohutukawa, ko Raumati.
The story of our Polynesian Ancestors first incursion into the Pacific begins about 4,000 years ago, at about which time they broke out of those lands on the Western boards of the Pacific and launched out into the unknown.
We do not know where they originated but their wonderings can be traced dimly through archaeological techniques back to South China, Indo-China, to those lands bordering the W. Pacific- Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia. From these lands they fanned out primarily into the Pacific, and also into the Indian Ocean reaching even the distant coast of Africa in the region of Madagascar.
The mists of ancient times, the limitations of human memory have dimmed the peoples' recollections of their original homelands. The one tradition they have never lost however is the name of their original homeland described variously by the difference moieties across the Pacific as Savai'i, Hawaii, Havaiki, Hawaiki.
Various theories have been propounded regarding the process of colonisation by the Polynesians of the various islands across the Pacific.
• One theory sees the Proto-Polynesians moving gradually across the coral atolls of the Marshall Island and Carolines from whence they dropped down into Fiji, Samoa and Tonga. This occurred before 1500BC.
• A second wave followed this initial wave about the beginning of the Christian era, for by 400AD the Polynesians had established themselves as far east as the Marquesas and as far north as the Hawaiian Islands. Whether they came from the Philippines and island-hopped across the coral atolls and then headed due east, or that they were drawn from Samoa and other W. Polynesian Island is still being debated. Of one thing we can be confident, namely, that Aotearoa was one of the last of the Pacific lands to be settles and this group was drawn from Eastern Polynesian. Archaeological and linguistic evidence endorse this theory, and the presence of the kumara in East Polynesian, but not in the west is added evidence.
The Settlement of Aotearoa
We turn to oral tradition which is common to all the tribes. It is generally agreed that the first settlers were the Tihi-o-Toi. He predated the Main Migration by 9-10 generations and the various canoes are linked to him through direct descent or intermarriage, of the captains and leaders of those Mata-Waka. (A genealogical table is appended). Hence, we can propose a time span of 250 – 300 years from this original settlement period to that of the later major settlement. Meanwhile, other voyagers plied to and fro between Aotearoa and their Eastern Polynesian homeland, keeping the lines of communication open.
It was natural that these original settlers should opt to settle in the temperate climate f the North Cape peninsula and indeed archaeological evidence points to this. This was a period of acclimatisation and adjustment to a new environment and we can envisage a gradual spread southwards by difference groups choosing to locate themselves in areas such as the Bay of Plenty where they could still enjoy favourable climatic condition.
The Main Migration
About 250-300 years later, events occurred in Eastern Polynesian which made the descendants of these original settlers determine to join their whanaunga in Aotearoa. Warfare had broken out in their island homes as the karakia of the various canoes, the manawatoto of Whakatau, and the traditions of the various tribes demonstrate.
Karakia of Ngatoki: "Ko Tane i wahia as te ara o Tawhirimatea ki runga o Taihoronuku-rangi, ki te Ika-a-Maui-Tikitiki-a-Taranga, te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa e takoto mai nei".
Quote from Whakatau's Manawatoto;
'Kua makawe te ngakinga o te toto, o te Iramutu o Tutekahu ...
Aua i te riri, aua i te nguha, whiria te kaka tutino mohou,
He koutu whenua, he take whenua e kore e taea te riri.
Ko Whakatau anake te toa i tamau ai – whiti roua.
(The battle to which this refers occurred in Eastern Polynesia).
From the above, we can conclude that the voyages were deliberate, and that the major cause for migration was the continuing likelihood of war.
As the whakapapa reveal, the main migration was a deliberately organised affair by the leaders of an iwi. The canoes were comprised of whanau and hapu groups all descended from Toi-te-Huatahi. Even the name of Toi, to which Te Huatahi, was later added by his descendants, recognise this common link. Huatahi = Fruit of the One Tree.
The canoes left as a fleet and the composition of their people was as follows, Whanau groups comprising the different families of their group with at least one or more of the youth of a particular family being allocated to another canoe so that should one canoe be wrecked at sea, that family line would continue.
Tradition records that when the fleet arrived at the Kermadec Islands, the Kurahaupo was holed crossing a reef into the lagoon. There was little suitable timber available for repairs so that the hole was patched by fastening woven mats held in place by timber place over them and lasted with the sling-line of their seine net.
Ko Kurahaupo te waka, ko Pohurihanga te Tangata, ko Ngati Kaha te iwi.
Kurahaupo was the canoe, Pohurihanga its Captain, Ngati Kaha its people.
To commemorate the event, the people of Pohurihanga henceforth called themselves the Ngati-Kaha, Te Kaha-o-te-Kupenga a Pohurihanga. Kaha in this context means 'sling-line of a net'.
The Kurahaupo made its landfall at Takapaukura a name given to commemorate the use of the mats as repair materials. It entered that bay at Tomokanga. From there it journeyed to Maunga Piko and entered Waitanoni stream at what is now call Kapowairua. These they discovered some warm springs at the junction of Waitanoni and Waitapu: and the foot of Maunga Piko they established their first Papakainga.
Soon after this settlement period, Taiko the oldest son moved to Parengarenga harbour; Toroa to Murimoto. Muriwhenua joined the Takitimuu people at Cape Karikari on her marriage to Rongokako and Whata-kai-marie remained at Kapowairua. Elements of earlier people to whom they were related through Toi, had established themselves around the Houhora harbour as their main papakainga. They had three pa – Wharekaapu on the southern side of Parengarenga, Rarawa pa along the Rarawa beach, and Houhora. They were known as Ngati-Awa.
Another segment of their whanaunga from the Tainui canoe under Te Paenga, a son of Hoturoa joined them and settled at Murimotu Tumatahina his descendant becomes the most famous of his descendants and is remembered for his mataara, "Ruia, ruia." (A whakapapa of these people descending to the founders of the various sub-tribal groups is appended).
Beside the tribes of Ngati Kuri, NgaiTakoto, Aupouri, there were other tribes who moved out or were wiped out. Tokoroa moved to Waipareira in Hokianga where he married Moetonga, the sister of Whakaruru who married Rahiri. Their father was Waiora from Ngati Ruanui of Hokianga. Some of Moetonga's descendants returned to the North Cape and were established there, the Ngati Waiora.
Te Houhou was slain at Houhora by Poroa
Kahukore his sister married Waiata of Te Roroa, the father of the famous Ngati Whatua Chief, Taoho. Ngati Waiora after the battle declined into insignificance and its members absorbed into Aupouri-Nui-Tonu.
The name originated with Taihaupapa the son of Ihutara. Taihaupapa had gone north and married Wakarua sister of Tokoroa, from Ngati Kura tribe. Taihaupapa left her pregnant and returned to Wahangape, where he married Hinerakei the ancestress of Ngai-Tumamao. War broke out between Ngati Kaha of Parengarenga and Ngati Awa occupying the foreshore of Rarawa between Parengarenga and Houhora. When Taihaupapa became aware of these events, he and his father Ihutara came with their tribe to the aid of Ngati Kaha.
They invaded and destroyed the Ngati Awa pa of Houhora, then Rarawa. At the third Pa of Wharekapu, Ihutara was slain and his body taken by Taihaupapa to an island in the Parengarenga Harbour where three dogs were slain for the 'whangai-hau' ceremony of the funeral rites. That island was henceforth known as Motu-Whangai-Kuri; and the descendants of Taihaupapa, as Ngati-Kuri.
1. Te Ikanui married the two daughters of Amongariki, Tihe and Kohine.
2. Niho's descendants are found mainly in Uriotai, and South Hokianga.
The eponymous ancestor of NgaiTakoto was Tuwhakatere a descendant of both Kauri and Tumoana. His first wife was Tuterangiatohia who begat Tamehui, Te Whai and other. His second wife was Tupoia, the first born of Haiti-Taimarangai. She begat Wahanui and Hokaa. Wahanui, a tremendous warrior, chafed at being under the mana of his older brothers Tamahui and Te Whai. He decided to carve out an empire for himself and obtain a turangawaewae by conquest. Before the tribe of Ngai Takoto he stated his intentions and uttered this proverb, "Taku pa ko Tehehaoa, taku mara ko Rangatetaua, 'taku ora ki tua'. My pa is Tehehaoa, my garden Rangatetaua, but my fortune is to be found elsewhere.
His brothers decided to aid him, but Tuwhakatere, by now an old man, pleaded with his youngest son Hokaa, who had a clubfoot, not to join his older brothers. Hokaa however did not listen. He was killed in battle. On hearing this news, Tuwhakatere pined for his son and died of grief. 'Te whakamomoritanga i Takoto ai a Tuwhakatere'. Hence, NgaiTakoto.
Wahanui established himself in Hauturu valley. He married Te Tuhira a descendant of Tumoana. They begat Kuraheke, who begat Rungaiterangi and Kohine. Rungaiterangi rejoined Ngai Takoto. Kohine begat Te Awa who marries More Te Korehunga, and their children were Kupe, Wheeru, etc.
Takamoana, the grandfather of Wheeru, Ikanui etc, belonged to Ngati Ruanui, and his mokopuna adopted that name.
Wheeru had married the four daughters of Ngataiawa the Chief of Te Uriotai and formed an alliance. They were Te Puku, Taimania, Waikarikari, Wareware. Kupe has married into the same tribe and established herself at Makora Pa in Pawarenga. Wheeru's Pa in Hauturu was Puke Ariki, and Te Ikanui's was Aomatua.
NgaiTumamao tribe, stretched from Mitimiti to Whangape Harbour. Tumamao their ancestor, was a son of Ihutara to Hinerakei, and thus related to Wheeru.
Tumamao begat Pararaha, who begat Te Painga. This Te Painga killed Kupe, the sister of Wheeru and Te Ikanui. When Te Ikanui heard through one of the Uriotai, he made for Mitimiti beach and waited for Te Painga. In the battle that followed, Te Painga's left breast was speared by Te Ikanui and he was killed. His descendants are known as Te Tao Maui through that incident.
Ngai Tumamao attacked the pa of Makora where Ngati-Ruanui had gathered under Wheeru and Te Ikanui. After some days of besiegement, Ngati-Ruanui decided to burn their pa at Makora. They threw their dead on to the burning palisades, which created black-smoke – called 'Au-Pouri'. Using that as a screen they escaped to the north and rejoined NgaiTakoto under Te Whango, at Te Make in Kaitaia. After recuperating there, Te Whango allocated various pa to Te Aupouri.
Wheeru was given Tawhiti Rahi, the Pa of his great-uncle Te Kokonga at Te Kao.
Whiti his son, was given Paparore.
Te Tupuni, Ikanui's oldest son was given Hukatere.
Te Ikanui and Te Kaka was allocated Murimotu. Puwai, Kaka's younger brother, settles north of Parengarenga.
Te Kakati was allocated the Taputuputu-Whangakea area. Kupe's children, Kuri, Haupure and Takehepaetu remained at Paparore with their cousin, Whiti.
Not long after this settling down period, Aupouri decided to go to war against the Ngati Raumati in the Bay of Islands to avenge the deaths of Whiti, Kuri, Huapure and Takahepaetu who were killed at Te Rangianiwaniwa where the Kaitaia aerodrome is now located.
Te Kakati who suffered from hernia, was dissuaded by Te Kaka from accompanying them. The war party was away for over a year. On their return they found that a few of their wives were pregnant to Te Kakati, war broke out between Te Kakati and his nephews.
When Whango heard of the trouble, he gathered NgaiTakoto, Te Paatu and Te Patukoraha who went north to sort Te Kakati out. They captured him and castrated him. They reoccupied Takapaukura, Mokaikai and Pakohu until the time of Nopera Panakareao who because of his land sales in NgatiKahu territory and incursions into Te Paatu and Patukoraha lands, they returned under Awarau, Popata, Kara, Te Matenga and Hupata Kaka to prevent any more sales of land.
There are three bases of Mana.
Mana Atua (Gods); Mana Tupuna; Mana Whenua.
Mana Atua: is delegated by the gods. Proof of their delegation of Mana is through victory in conquest and continued support in occupation.
Mana Tupuna: The Mana to lands, harbours, rivers, beaches, forests, fisheries is inherited through the ancestors.
Mana Whenua: is based on occupation under the principle of "Ahi Kaa"- keeping the home fires burning.
Proof of claims is attested to by; known papakainga, Pa, gardens and burial sites.
1. Ngati Kaha's claims to the land within the boundaries outlined above, both by virtue of continued occupation and conquest through her sub-tribes of Ngati Kuri, NgaiTakoto, and Aupouri are established.
2. From the genealogies submitted the Mana Tupuna, by virtue of direct descendant from Kurahaupo, is also established.
3. The main papakainga have been outlined.
4. The history of the peoples, their interrelationships, their movements have been noted.
5. Through the NgaiTakoto lines, the claims of Te Paatu, Patukoraha and Tahawai must also be noted. Indeed, this was done by our Tupuna when the shares in Parengarenga were allotted to the descendants, and these sub-tribes recognised legitimately.
6. It must be noted that all contemporary descendants who claim descent from Ngati Kuri, NgaiTakoto, Aupouri, individually can claim descent from either of the others.
7. Te Paatu and Patukoraha can likewise make the same claims.
8. My own genealogical lines demonstrate the claim.
• I claim descent from all the children of Pohurihanga. From Taiko down to Hinerangi through her parents, Whango and Ruapuhia.
• I claim descent from Toroa through Wakarua who married Taihaupapa founder of Ngati Kuri by way of Ti whenua and Wairupe their children.
• Aupouri generally can make the same claims for Te Ikanui is a direct descendant of Wairupe, and he married the mokopuna of Tiawhenua; Tihe and Kohine.
• All of Aupouri is also descended from NgaiTakoto and Ngati Kahu through the marriage of Tuwhakatere and Tupoia of Ngati Kahu who begat Wahanui, the Great-great-grandfather of Wheeru, Te Ikanui. etc.
• I can claim direct descent from Whatakaimarie through their three children, Rangituroa, Hinetapu, and Toohe. Rangituroa traces down to Te Whango, and Tuterangiatohia the wife of Tuwhakatere.
• Toohe traces down to Awarau my great-grandfather through Takamoana, as does also the whole of Aupouri. Toohe is the ancestor of Te-Oneroa-a-Tohe; and Tuwhakatere in later times.
• I trace my descent from Wheeru through Mauhara and Ngaruhe on my Mother's side: and from Whiti, on my Father's side.
• I trace my descent from Te Ikanui through Te Tupuni, Hikiraiti, and Maanga.
As in my own case, this is generally true of all. We are one.
Ruia, ruia, tahia, tahia kia herea mai te kakoa, koa, koa. Kia tangi mai te kawau i roto i tana pukoro, koro whaikoro. He kuaka marangaranga, kotahi manu i tau ki te tahuna, tau atu, tau atu.
Takapau turanga maomao
Kei hea te to i rangoaa nei
Te hiki o te waewae ko te hoatu whakamua
Te hiki o te waewae ko te hoki whakamuri.
Kia U, Kia Mau, tu ake te uru,
Nga tai mimihi, nga wai marama i runga o Maunga Piko.
In other writings, Rev. Maori Marsden talks about his time in the whare wananga which went into recess in 1958, a decision made at the home of kaumatua Ruka Herewini in Mt Albert, Auckland. During the war period a substantial number of the older members in their '70s and '80s had passed away, and those younger men destined for the Wananga either did not survive the war, or came back with other priorities about making a living for themselves and their families.
As the last surviving member of the whare wananga Maori pays tribute to those from whom he was taught and tutored on the histories of Te Taitokerau, he identifies his mentors as,
Te Ikaroa Popata of Te Paatu, Perehia Tauhara of Te Whanau Moana, and Nopera Otene of Mangamuka, who as a young child initiated him with the ancient rites of our tupuna, into the wananga.
The elders of my father's tribes who in my childhood allowed me to sit at their feet as they related the tales of the daring do's of my ancestors ... They were, Paraone Tuwhare, Karena Tarahea, Raiha Paraone, Kaio Hakaraia, Nopera Waata, Apetona Waata, Te Paea Kaio, Ngamako Hupata, Kaa Himiona, Tiopira me Ritihia Paerata, Mataina Ngaru, Taihiria me Ngaropi Aperahama, Topi Etera, Hakaraia Karaka, Rev. Hone Karaka, Rev. Mutu Kapa me tona nuinga. Ngakuru Pene Haare, Hoera Kanara.
From Te Kao: Eru Ihaka, Pako Heka, Nutana Wiki, Witana Natanahira, Hemi Matiu and others.
From Ngati Kahu: Piri Mokena,Tuku Hepara, Winika Hetaraka, Te Pari Raharuhi, Te Kawau Karaka, Wi Hetariki, Henare Kingi, Perene Huirama, Te Karu Huirama, Hone Wi Kaitaia, Niki Pereiha, Timoto Popata, Oriwa Popata, Tauhinu Himiona, Tame Arena, Iraia Poata, Rev. Kei Poata, Rewi Paapu.
Other noteable giants and participants of the Wananga were identified as:
Re Kauere of Ngai Tuteauru of Otaua, Hira Rogers, Witehira of Ngati Hineira, Mataraua, Hori Whiu, Ripi Wihongi of Te Uri o Hua, Kaikohe, Nuka Anehana of Te KaiKiniKini, Utakura, Hori Hemara of Ngati Wharara, Pakanae, Rawiri of Te Hikutu, Whirinaki, Toki Pangari of Te Ihutai, Kohukohu, Takou Kamira and Barney Hotere of Te Tao-Maui of Mitimiti, Moa Tahana of Tao Maui, Te Rei Puku and Ngaru Ngawaka of Te Taiwhiu, Whangape, Wairama Maihi of Te Rarawa, Teri Wi and Mare Rapata of Ngati Moetonga, Ahipara, Rameka of Ngati Rahiri, Oromahoe, Tane Karaka of Ngati Rangi, Ngawha, Kerei Mihaka of Uri Taniwha, Te Ahuahu and others.